Star Wars: Why Didn't Darth Vader Sense Leia Was His Daughter
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During the iconic opening moments of Star Wars: A New Hope, Darth Vader has a tense confrontation with Princess Leia, an adversary who, unbeknownst to him, is actually his daughter. Despite participating in Leia's interrogation, the Sith Lord doesn't uncover his familial connection with the rebellious royal. In contrast, Vader sensed his connection to Luke Skywalker almost immediately. How did Vader detect his relationship with one of his offspring but not the other? The short answer is that creator George Lucas had no idea Leia would end up becoming Darth Vader's daughter until after A New Hope.
Star Wars books and comics have tried to address the decades-old plot hole. Lucas had originally planned a love triangle involving Han Solo, Leia Organa, and Luke Skywalker. However, he ultimately decided Luke and Leia were to be siblings, which is made clear by how they treat one another in later films. The fact of the matter is that Vader didn't even become Luke's father until Lucas realized the character was an enormous hit with audiences. He was making up plot elements for the original trilogy as he went along. As a result, it was left to other writers to justify the holes that came from creating the story this way.
Why Darth Vader Didn't Know Leia Was His Daughter
In the 2015 canon junior novel Star Wars: The Princess, the Scoundrel and the Farm Boy, by Alexandra Bracken, Darth Vader senses the Force within Leia when he interrogates her during A New Hope. Leia resists the Imperial probe, revealing her Force sensitivity to him. That stuns Vader because, before A New Hope, Darth Sidious and Vader are believed to be the only Force users left in the galaxy. Plus, Vader was tricked by the Emperor into believing his children died alongside Padme. Further, both believed Obi-Wan and Yoda had died a long time ago.
Unlike Luke, an incredibly strong Force user, Leia's abilities were more instinctual and passive. Leia had never used the Force for combat, and she never wielded a lightsaber in the original trilogy. The controversial sequel Star Wars: The Last Jedi is the first time that Leia is ever depicted actively using the Force, as she finally reveals her powers to general audiences. The scene was unlike anything that movie viewers had seen from Leia, as she stretched out her hand to save herself from being enveloped by the vacuum of space.
Leia's Force Abilities Prevented a Stunning Realization
Even when she first met Darth Vader, Leia wasn't especially aware of her own connection to the Force either. Leia grew up as a princess on Alderaan and then, later in life, became a senator on Coruscant. Bail Organa, her adoptive father, did everything he could to protect Leia from discovering her true identity. In fact, a story from Star Wars Legends indicates that Leia first developed Force abilities at a young age, but was so far removed from the Force and the Jedi that she never pursued these powers further. However, that ultimately didn't matter because Leia didn't want to become a Jedi.
The Star Wars Legends novel Death Star further tries to explain Darth Vader's lack of recognition of Leia. In the 2007 novel, Vader senses something familiar when he interrogates her. Vader even notices Leia's beauty and is surprised by the similarities between her and Padme. In the Star Wars comics, it is often indicated Leia has a stronger connection to Padme than to Anakin. In Death Star, it seems the Sith Lord could have discovered Leia's true identity if he'd pursued his hunch. However, Leia's strong-mindedness during Vader's probe denied him the opportunity to discover she was his daughter. That serves to justify Vader's lack of awareness of his connection to Leia, although, perhaps, not as satisfyingly as if Lucas had planned for the relationship from the beginning.
Vader Couldn't Believe Anakin's Children Lived
Perhaps the strongest factor in Darth Vader's inability to sense his own daughter when she was standing right in front of him was denial. Darth Vader simply couldn't allow himself to believe that Anakin Skywalker's children had lived. Anakin Skywalker's downfall into Darth Vader at the end of the Clone Wars had been dramatic and complete, leaving almost no traces of the former Jedi behind within the Sith Lord. By the events of A New Hope, Vader had so consumed Anakin that even the thought that his child had survived Padme's death would have been unbearable for him. Allowing himself to believe even for a moment that some vestige of Anakin Skywalker lived on would have made his horrific actions over the last two decades worthless--and Vader simply couldn't stomach the thought.
As audiences know, it wasn't long after reconnecting with his son and learning that Leia was his daughter that Vader betrayed and killed Emperor Palpatine, saving the galaxy in the process. It was the survival of Anakin Skywalker's children that motivated the once-great Jedi to become a hero again. Seeing Luke and knowing about Leia gave Vader the hope that he had been missing for so long--something that he had denied himself for fear of getting hurt again. Vader's denial kept him from this resolution for years--but even he couldn't run from the truth about Luke and Leia.
Darth Vader's failure to sense that Leia Organa was his daughter during the events of A New Hope may initially seem like a plot hole but actually reveals the deep inner turmoil of his character. George Lucas didn't always know the truth about Leia's parentage, but it certainly resulted in a beautiful turn of events for both her character and Darth Vader himself.